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Metabolism, vol 70, 2017: "Berberine-induced bioactive metabolites of the gut microbiota improve energy metabolism."
We show that oral administration of BBR in animals promoted the gut microbiota to produce butyrate, which then enters the blood and reduces blood lipid and glucose levels. A mechanism study showed that BBR (given orally) modified mice intestinal bacterial composition by increasing the abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria. Promotion of butyrate production in gut microbiota might be one of the important mechanisms of BBR in regulating energy metabolism.

Nature 2017: Low-dose penicillin in early life induces long-term changes in murine gut microbiota, brain cytokines and behavior