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Fats

FNR 2016: Our results do not support the association between CVDs and saturated fat, which is still contained in official dietary guidelines. Instead, they agree with data accumulated from recent studies that link CVD risk with the high glycaemic index/load of carbohydrate-based diets. 

Infographic of Omega-3 content against mercury content.

Omega 3 balance search engine.

The fish-oil styrofoam cup test.

Am J Clin Nutr Sept 1999: Studies indicate that a high intake of n−6 fatty acids shifts the physiologic state to one that is prothrombotic and proaggregatory, characterized by increases in blood viscosity, vasospasm, and vasoconstriction and decreases in bleeding time. n−3 Fatty acids, however, have anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antiarrhythmic, hypolipidemic, and vasodilatory properties.

PLEFA (PDF) 2010: The study compares three concentrated preparations — ethyl esters, free fatty acids and re-esterified triglycerides — with placebo oil. Bioavailability of EPA+DHA from re-esterified triglycerides was superior (124%) compared with natural fish oil, whereas the bioavailability from ethyl esters was inferior (73%).

F&NR 2016: Epidemiological study of 42 European countries; "... found exceptionally strong relationships between some of the examined factors, the highest being a correlation between raised cholesterol in men and the combined consumption of animal fat and animal protein (r=0.92, p<0.001). The most significant dietary correlate of low CVD risk was high total fat and animal protein consumption."

The Lancet August 2017: PURE study:  High carbohydrate intake was associated with higher risk of total mortality, whereas total fat and individual types of fat were related to lower total mortality.

  • first suggested by Newsholme in relation to starvation improving immune response ("Mechanism for starvation suppression and refeeding activity of infection". Lancet 1977; i: 654)
  • the immunosuppressive effects of PUFAs in sunflower seeds are useful in treating autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (Miller JD, et al. Br Med J 1973; i: 765)
  • the first kidney transplant patients were fed linoleic oil (Uldall PR, et al Lancet 1974; ii: 514), which is the major PUFA in vegetable oil; those patients rapidly developed cancers
  • this chimed with results of PUFA studies (eg: Pearce M L, Dayton S. "Incidence of cancer in men on a diet high in polyunsaturated fat". Lancet 1971; i: 464)
  • in a ten-year trial at a Veterans' Administration Hospital in LA, half the patients were fed a diet which had double the amount of PUFs as compared to saturated fats. The high PUF group suffered a 15% percent increase in cancer deaths compared to the saturated fat group (American Heart Association Monograph, No 25. 1969)
Cell Chemical Biology Aug 2017: Fat metabolism protects against sugar. "During ketosis, another metabolic route is operative via direct non-enzymatic aldol reaction between methylglyoxal and the ketone body acetoacetate ..." (commentary)

Clin Nutr. 2004 Aug: Dietary fat, insulin sensitivity and the metabolic syndrome
In conclusion, there is evidence available in humans indicating that dietary fat quality influences insulin sensitivity and associated metabolic abnormalities. Therefore, prevention of the metabolic syndrome has to be targeted: (1) to correct overweight by reducing the energy density of the habitual diet (i.e., fat intake) and (2) to improve insulin sensitivity and associated metabolic abnormalities through a reduction of dietary saturated fat, partially replaced, when appropriate, by monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats.
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