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Cholesterol

NCBI 2004: High intake of cholesterol results in less atherogenic low-density lipoprotein particles in men and women independent of response classification.

 BMJ April 2016: Re-analysis of the Minnesota Coronary Experiment
There was a 22% higher risk of death for each 30 mg/dL (0.78 mmol/L) reduction in serum cholesterol in covariate adjusted Cox regression models (hazard ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.14 to 1.32; P<0.001). In meta-analyses, these cholesterol lowering interventions showed no evidence of benefit on mortality from coronary heart disease (1.13, 0.83 to 1.54) or all cause mortality (1.07, 0.90 to 1.27). Available evidence from randomized controlled trials shows that replacement of saturated fat in the diet with linoleic acid effectively lowers serum cholesterol but does not support the hypothesis that this translates to a lower risk of death from coronary heart disease or all causes. Findings from the Minnesota Coronary Experiment add to growing evidence that incomplete publication has contributed to overestimation of the benefits of replacing saturated fat with vegetable oils rich in linoleic acid.

PermJ 2015 (autumn): Insulin resistance, as manifested by a high triglyceride/HDL-c ratio, was associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes more than other lipid metrics, including LDL-c, which had little concordance. Physicians and patients should not overlook the triglyceride/HDL-c ratio.
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